Seven Must Know Network Troubleshooting Tips

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By Art Reisman

CTO, APconnections

To get started you’ll need to get ahold of two key software tools: 1) Ping Tool and 2) a Network Scan Tool, both which I describe in more detail below.  And for advanced analysis (experts only), I will then show you how you can use a bandwidth shaper/sniffer if needed.

Ping Tool

Ping is a great tool to determine what your network responsiveness is (in milliseconds), identified by trying to get a response from a typical website. If you do not already know how to use Ping on your device there are hundreds of references to Ping and how to use it.  Simply google “how to use ping ” on  your favorite device or computer to learn how to use it.

For example, I found these instructions for my MAC; and there are similar instructions for Windows, iPhone, Linux, Android, etc.

  1. Open Network Utility (located inside Applications > Utilities).
  2. Click Ping.
  3. Fill out the “Enter the network that you want to ping” field. You can enter the IP address or a web URL. For example, enter to test the ping with that website.
  4. Click Ping.

Network Scan Tool

There are a variety of network SCAN tools/apps available for just about any consumer device or computer.  The decent ones will cost a few dollars, but I have never regretted purchasing one.  I use mine often for very common home and business network issues as I will detail in the tips below. Be sure and use the term “network scan tool” when searching, so you do not get confusing results about unrelated document scanning tools.

Once you get your scan tool installed, test it out by selecting Network Scan. Here is the output from my MAC scan tool.  I will be referencing this output later in the article.

Network Scan Output
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Tip #1: Using Ping to see if you are really connected to your Network

I like to open a window on my laptop and keep Ping going all day, it looks like this: Ping  Output

Screen Shot 2016-04-05 at 8.25.10 AM

Amazingly, seemingly on cue, I lost connectivity to my Internet while I was running the tool for the screen capture above, and no, it was not planned or contrived.  I kicked off my ping by contacting (type in “ping”), a public website. And you can see that my round-trip time was around 40 milliseconds before it went dead. Any ping results under 100 milliseconds are normal.


Tip #2: How to Deal with Slow Ping Times

In the case above, my Internet Connection just went dead; it came back a minute or so later, and was most likely not related to anything local on my network.

If you start to see missed pings or slow Ping Times above 100 milliseconds, it is most likely due to congestion on your network.  To improve your response times, try turning off other devices/applications and see if that helps.  Even your TV video can suck down a good chunk of bandwidth.

Note: Always test two public websites with a ping before jumping to any conclusions. It is not likely but occasionally a big site like Yahoo will have sporadic response times.

Note: If you have a satellite link, slow and missed pings are normal just a fact-of-life.


Tip #3: If you can’t ping a public site, try pinging your local Wireless Router

To ping your local router all you need to find is the IP address of your router. And on almost all networks you can guess it quite easily by looking up the IP address of your computer, and then replacing the last number with a 1.

For example, on my computer I click on my little apple icon, then System Preferences, and then Networking, and I get this screen.  You can see in the Status are it tells me that my IP address is

Finding my IP address output

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The trick to finding your router’s IP address is to replace the last number of any IP address on your network with a 1.  So in my case, I start with my IP address of, and I swap the 131 with 1.  I then ping using as my argument, by typing in “ping”. A  ping to my router looks like this:

Router Ping  Output

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In the case above I was able to ping my local router and get a response. So what does this tell me?  If I can ping my local wireless router but I can’t ping Yahoo or any other public site, most likely the problem is with my Internet Provider.  To rule out problems with your wireless router or cables, I recommend that you re-boot your wireless router and check the cables coming into it as a next step.

In one case of failure, I actually saw a tree limb on the cable coming from the utility pole to the house. When I called my Internet Provider, I was able to relay this information, which saved a good bit of time in resolving issue.


Tip  #4: Look for IP loops

Last week I was getting an error message when I powered up my laptop, saying that some other device had my IP address, and I determined that I was unable to attach to the wireless router. WHAT a strange message!  Fortunately, with my scan tool I can see all the other devices on my network. And although I do not know exactly how I got into this situation, I was quickly able to find the device with the duplicate IP address and powercycle it. This resolved the problem in this case.


Tip #5: Look for Rogue Devices

If you never give out the security code to your wireless router, you should not have any unwanted visitors on your network.  To be certain, I again turn to the scan tool.  From my scan output, in the image above (titled “Network Scan Output” near the top of this post), you can see that there are about 15 devices attached to my network. I can account for all of them so for now I have no intruders.


Tip #6: Maybe it is just Mischief

There was a time when I left my wireless router wide open as I live in a fairly rural neighborhood and was just being complacent. I was surprised to see that one of my neighbors was on my access point, but which one?

I did some profiling.  Neighbor to my west is a judge with his own network, probably not him.  Across the street, a retired librarian, so probably not her.  That left the Neighbor to my Southwest, kitty corner, a house with all kinds of extended family coming and going, and no network router of their own, at least that I could detect. I had my suspect. And I could also assume they never suspected I was aware of them.

The proper thing to do would have been to block them and lock my wireless router. But since I wanted to have a little fun, I plugged in my bandwidth controller and set their bandwidth down to a fraction of a Megabit.  This had the effect of making their connection painfully dreadfully slow, almost unusable but with a ray of hope.  After a week, he went away and then I completely blocked him (just in case he decided to come back!).


Tip #7: Advanced Analysis with a Bandwidth Shaper/Sniffer

If the Ping tool and the Scan tool don’t shed any light on an issue, the next step is to use a more advanced Packet Sniffer. Usually this requires a separate piece of equipment that you insert into your network between your router and network users. I use my NetEqualizer because I have several of them laying around the house.

Often times the problem with your network is some rogue application consuming all of the resources. This can be in the form of consuming total bandwidth, or it could also be seen as overwhelming your wireless router with packets (there are many viruses designed to do just this).

The image below is from a live snapshot depicting bandwidth utilization on a business network. Screen Shot 2016-01-27 at 12.26.49 PM

That top number, circled in red, is a YouTube video, and it is consuming about 3 megabits of bandwidth. Directly underneath that are a couple of cloud service applications from Amazon, and they are consuming 1/10 of what the YouTube video demolishes. On some lower cost Internet links one YouTube can make the service unusable to other applications.

With my sniffer I can also see total packets consumed by a device, which can be a problem on many networks if somebody opens an email with a virus. Without a sniffer it is very hard to track down the culprit.

I hope these tips help you to troubleshoot your network.  Please let us know if you have any questions or tips that you would like to contribute.

The Real Story Behind Your Internet Speed


When your ISP  claims the Internet Speed to your home  is 100 megabits, they are most likely referring to the speed of the link between your home and their Network Operations center ( depicted by the Green lines in the diagram above) . Typically you do not share this link anybody else , hence you truly do have a dedicated 100 megabit link as per their claims.  The caveat is this speed can only be reliably attained  when you are accessing data from their Network Operations Center or from another user also hosted by your ISP .


Now, notice the little Purple circle called (IX) in the diagram. This is called an Internet exchange point. It is a choke point where ISPs exchange data to and from each each other. For example, if you are accessing a Web site hosted in France , most likely you will go through one or more IX points to get to your data.  Unless you are in France   of course , but our assumption is that you are not in France .

Your ISP hates it when you go through their exchange point to access a remote server for a couple of reasons.


  1. They have to pay money if they originate more data, from their network than the other ISPs using the exchange point.
  2. Exchange points are bottle necks with limited capacity, and if too many users go through it at the same time, their speeds will degrade. For example, if you try to download a big file from the server in France while other users from your ISP are going out to other countries, the speed of your download cannot be guaranteed.  And most likely will not be any where near your 100 megabit promise during peak usage hours.

So why should you care about Internet Exchange Points and how does that impact your Internet speed ?

The answer is it depends on how you use the Internet.

ISPs have gotten very smart , and keep copies of most content local in their NOC or within their Network.The average consumer is not likely to suffer degradation if they stick to commonly used content.  Netflix is a good example. There is no one big Netflix server in Cyber space, there are  in fact, many copies of Netflix servers , and one or more are located at your local ISP.  So if you use the Internet to watch popular content from Netflix, then you will likely get your advertised  Internet speed.

If you are an old timer like me, you might want to explore avant-garde content not available from Netflix, you will likely run into some issues with streaming video. For me with my ISP it is hit or miss. During their off peak hours I usually have no trouble, but many times I am unable to get reliable video from distant servers during peak hours.

The next time that you get a promotional advertisement from an ISP touting their service, ask the sales rep about the throughput you will get going through their exchange server on your way to France and see what they say :)

References IXP

Behind The Scenes, How Many Users Can an Access Point Handle ?

Assume you are teaching a class with thirty students, and every one of them needs help with their homework, what would you do? You’d probably schedule a time slot for each student to come in and talk to you one on one (assuming they all had different problems and there was no overlap in your tutoring).

Fast forward to your wireless access point.  You have perhaps heard all the rhetoric about 3.5 gigaherts, or 5.3 megahertz ?

Unfortunately, the word frequency is tossed around in tech buzzword circles the same way car companies and their marketing arms talk about engine sizes. I have no idea what 2.5 Liter Engine is,  it might sound cool and it might be better than a 2 liter engine, but in reality I don’t know how to compare the two numbers. So to answer our original question, we first need a little background on frequencies to get beyond the marketing speak.

A good example of a frequency, that is also easy to visualize, are ripples on pond. When you drop a rock in the water, ripples propagate out in all directions. Now imagine if  you stood in the water, thigh deep across the pond,  and the ripples hit your leg once each second.  The frequency of the ripples in the water would be 1 hertz, or one peak per second. With access points, there are similar ripples that we call radio waves. Although you can’t see them, like the ripples on the water, they are essentially the same thing. Little peaks and values of electromagnetic waves going up and down and hitting the antenna of the wireless device in your computer or Iphone. So when a marketing person tells you their AP is 2.4 Gigahertz, that means those little ripples coming out of  it are hitting your head, and everything else around them, 2.4 billion times each second. That is quite a few ripples per second.

Now in order to transmit a bit of data, the AP actually stops and starts transmitting ripples. One moment it is sending out 2.4 billion ripples pdf second the next moment it is not.  Now this is where it gets a bit weird, at least for me. The 2.4 billion ripples a second really have no meaning as far as data transmission by themselves; what the AP does is set up a schedule of time slots, let’s say 10 million time slots a second, where it is either transmitting ripples, or it turns the ripple generator off. Everybody that is in communication with the AP is aware of the schedule and all the 10 million time slots.  Think of these time slots as dates on your Calendar, and if you have a sunny day, call that a one, while if you have a cloudy day call that a 0.  Cloudy days are a binary 1 and clear day a binary 0. After we string together 8 days we have a sequence of 1’s and 0’s and a full byte. Now 8 days is a long time to transmit a byte, that is why the AP does not use 24 hours for a time slot, but it could , if we were some laid back hippie society where time did not matter.

So let’s go back over what we have learned and plug in some realistic parameters.
Let’s start with a frequency of 2.4 gigahertz. The fastest an AP can realistically turn this ripple generator off and on is about 1/4 the frequency or about 600 time slots/bits per second. This assumes a perfect world and all the bits get out without any interference from other things generating ripples (like your microwave) or something. So in reality the effective rate might be more on the order of 100 million bits a second.
Now let’s say there are 20 users in the room, sharing the available bits equally. They would all be able to run 5 megabits each. But again, there is over head switching between these users (sometimes they talk at the same time and have to constantly back off and re-synch)  Realistically with 20 users all competing for talk time,  1 to 2 megabits per user is more likely.

Other factors that can affect the number of users.
As you can imagine the radio AP manufacturers do all sorts of things to get better numbers. The latest AP’s have multiple antennas and run in two frequencies (two ripple generators) for more bits.

There are also often interference problems with multiple AP’s in the area , all making ripples . The transmission of  ripples for one AP do not stop at a fixed boundary, and this complexity will cause the data rates to slow down while the AP’s sort themselves out.

For related readings on Users and Access Points:

How Many Users Can a Wireless Access Point Handle?

How to Build Your Own Linux Access Points

How to use Access Points to set up and In-Home Music System

Changing times, Five Points to Consider When Trying to Shape Internet Traffic

By Art Reisman, CTO, APconnections

1 ) Traditional Layer 7 traffic shaper methods are NOT able to identify encrypted traffic. In fact, short of an NSA back door, built into some encryption schemes, traditional Layer 7 traffic shapers are slowly becoming obsolete as the percentage of encrypted traffic expands.
2 ) As of 2014, it was estimated that up to 6 percent of the traffic on the Internet is encrypted, and this is expected to double in the next year or so.
3) It is possible to identify the source and destination of traffic even on encrypted streams. The sending and receiving IP’s of encrypted traffic are never encrypted, hence large content providers, such as Facebook, YouTube, and Netflix may be identified by their IP address, but there some major caveats.

– it is common for the actual content from major content providers to be served from regional servers under different domain names (they are often registered to third parties). Simply trying to identify traffic content from its originating domain is too simplistic.

– I have been able to trace proxied traffic back to its originating domain with accuracy by first doing some experiments. I start by initiating a download from a known source, such as YouTube or Netflix, and then I can figure out the actual IP address of the proxy that the download is coming from. From this, I then know that this particular IP is most likely the source of any subsequent YouTube. The shortfall with relying on this technique is that IP addresses change regionally, and there are many of them. You cannot assume what was true today will be true tomorrow with respect to any proxy domain serving up content. Think of the domains used for content like a leased food cart that changes menus each week.

4) Some traffic can be identified by behavior, even when it is encrypted. For example, the footprint of a single computer with a large connection count can usually be narrowed down to one of two things. It is usually either BitTorrent, or some kind of virus on a local computer. BitTorrents tend to open many small connections and hold them open for long periods of time. But again there are caveats. Legit BitTorrent providers such as Universities distributing public material will use just a few connections to accomplish the data transfer. Whereas consumer grade BitTorrents, often used for illegal file sharing, may use 100’s of connections to move a file.

5)  I have been alerted to solutions that require organizations to retrofit all endpoints with pre-encryption utilities, thus allowing the traffic shaper to receive data before it is encrypted.  I am not privy to the mechanics on how this is implemented, but I would assume outside of very tightly controlled networks, such a method would be a big imposition on users.

How to keep your IP address static with DHCP

One of the features we support with the NetEqualizer product is a Quota tool, which keeps a running count of total bytes used per IP on a network. A typical IT administrator wants to keep track of data on a per user basis over time, hence some form of Quota tool is essential.  However, a potential drawback of our methodology is that we track usage by IP.   Most networks use a technology called DHCP that dynamically hands out a new IP address each time you power up and power down your computer or wireless device. Most network administrators can track a specific user to an IP in the moment, but they have no idea who had the IP address last week or last month.  Note: there are authentication tools such as Radius or Nomadix that can be used to track users by name but, this adds a complex layer of additional overhead to a simple network.

Yesterday, when working with a customer, the subject came up about our Quota tool, and its drawback of not being able to track a user by IP over time, and the customer turned that into a teaching moment for me.

You see, a DHCP server will always try and give the same IP address back to the same device if the previous IP address is available.   So the key is keeping that IP address available; and there is a simple trick to make sure that this happens.

When you set up a DHCP server it will ask you the range of IP addresses you want to use. All one needs to do is ensure that the defined range is much bigger than the number of devices that will be on your network, and then you can be almost certain that a device will always get the same IP.  This is because the DHCP server only re-uses previously assigned IP addresses when all IP addresses have been assigned, and this would only happen if you defined your IP address range to a relative small number relative to the number of potential devices on your network.   There is no real extra cost for defining your DHCP address range as a Class B instead of the typical default Class C, which then expands your range from 255 to 64,000.  So make sure your ranges are large enough and feel free to track your users by IP without worry.

If you would like to learn more about our Quota tool, also known as “User Quota”, you can read more about it in our User Guide.

Notes from a cyber criminal

After a couple of recent high profile data thefts,   I put the question to myself,  how does a cyber thief convert a large amount of credit cards into a financial windfall?

I did some research, and then momentarily put on the shoes of a cyber thief, here are my notes and thoughts:

I am the greatest hacker in the world and I just got a-hold of twenty million  Home Depot debit cards and account numbers. What is my next move. Well I guess I could just start shopping at Home Depot every day and maxing out all my stolen account cards with a bunch of Lawn Mowers , Garden Hoses, and other items. How many times could I do this before I got caught ?  Probably not that many, I am sure the buying patterns would be flagged even before the consumer realized their card was stolen , especially if I was nowhere near the home area code of my victim(s).  And then I’d have to fence all those items to turn it into cash. But let’s assume I acted quickly and went on a home depot shopping spree with my twenty million cards.  Since I am a big time crook I am looking for a haul I can retire on, and so I’d want to buy and fence at least a few hundred thousand dollars worth of stuff out the gate. Now that is going to be quite a few craig(s) list advertisements, and one logistical nightmare to move those goods, and also I am leaving a trail back to me because at some point I have to exchange the goods with the buyer and they are going to want to pay by check . Let me re-think this…

Okay so I am getting smarter, forget the conventional method , what if I find some Russian portal where I can just sell the Home Depot cards and have the funds paid in Bitcoin to some third-party account that is untraceable.  How many people actually have Bitcoin accounts, and how many are interested in buying stolen credit cards on the black market, and then how to insure that the numbers have not been deactivated ? Suppose I sell to some Mafia type and the cards are not valid anymore ? Will they track me down and kill me ? Forget the Bitcoin,  I’ll have to use Paypal , again leaving a trail of some kind.  So now how do I market my credit card fencing site, I have 20 million cards to move and no customers.  A television advertisement , an underworld blog post ?  I need customers to buy these cards and I need them fast , once I start selling them Home Depot will only take a few days to shut down their cards . Maybe I can just have an agent hawk them in Thailand for $3 each , that way I stay anonymous, yeh that’s what I’ll do whew , I’ll be happy if I can net a few thousand dollars.

Conclusion: Although the theft of a data makes a great headline and is certainly not to be taken lightly , the ability for the crook(s) to convert bounty into a financial windfall, although possible is most likely a far more difficult task than the data theft . Stealing the data is one thing, but profiting from it on anything but the smallest scale is very difficult if not impossible.

The real problem for the hacked commercial institution is not the covering the loss of revenue from the theft, but the loss of company value from loss of public trust which can mount into the billions.

Although my main business is Bandwidth Control I do spend a good deal of thought cycles on Security as on occasion the two go hand in hand. For example some of the utilities we use on our NetEqualizer are used to thwart DOS attacks.  We also have our NetGladiator product which is simply the best and smartest tool out there for preventing an attack through your Website.

An Easy Way to Get Rid of Wireless Dead Spots and Get Whole Home Music

By Steve Wagor, Co-Founder APconnections

Wireless dead spots are a common problem in homes and offices that expand beyond the range of single wireless access point. For example in my home office, my little Linksys Access point works great on my main floor , but down in my basement the signal just does not reach very well. The problem with a simple access point is if you need to expand your area you must mesh a new one, and off the shelf they do not know how to talk to each other.

For those of you have tried to expand your home network into a mesh with multiple access points there are howto’s out there for rigging them up

Many use wireless access points that are homemade, or the commercial style made for long range. With these solutions you will most likely need a rubber ducky antenna and either some old computers or at least small board computers with attached wireless cards. You will also need to know a bit of networking and setup most of these types of things via what some people would consider complex commands to link them all up into the mesh.

Well its a lot easier than that if you don’t need miles and miles of coverage using off the shelf Apple products. These are small devices with no external antennas.

First you need to install an Apple Extreme access point:
– at the time of this being written it is $199 and has been at that price for at least a couple of years now.

Now for every dead spot you just need the Apple Express:
– at the time of this being written it is $99 and has been at that price for at least a couple of years now too.

So for every dead spot you have you can solve the problem for $99 after the Apple Extreme is installed. And Apple has very good install instructions on the product line so you don’t need to be a network professional to configure it. Most of it is simple point and click and all done via a GUI and without having to go to a command line ever.

For whole home music fairly effortlessly you can use the Analog/Optical Audio Jack on the back of the Airport Express and plug into your stereo or externally powered speakers. Now connect your iPhone or Mac product up to the same wireless network provided by your Airport Extreme and you can use Airplay to toggle on all or any of the stereos that your network has access to. So if you let your guests access your wireless network and they have an iPhone with Airplay then they could let you listen to anything they are playing by using Airplay to play it on your stereo for example while you are working out together in your home gym.

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